Architecture Layers

Harvard University’s vision for enterprise architecture is to articulate and drive to common solutions, standards, and opportunities for alignment in order to reduce IT complexity and cost across the University and enable local innovation.

Security

Principles
Rationale
Assess risk across the entire system, not only within a particular layer.
Utilize the ‘defense in depth’ approach. Risk and security must be understood and applied across the whole system and not just within a specific layer.
Balance risk, asset value and cost to protect within the context of approved security policies.
Security can't be appropriately applied without an understanding of the risk, including existing threats and impacts, as well as the "value" of what is being secured.
Include both prevention measures and detection and response functions.
Failures will occur and perfect security is impossible to achieve, so it is important to balance prevention measures with detection and response functions.
Build security into the entire product lifecycle.
Security is best accomplished if built into the entire product lifecycle (design, deployment, operation, and end of life) and not "bolted on" afterwards.
Consider people, process and technology in making security decisions.
Security is comprised of people, process, and technology, and done well needs to take all three into consideration.

Continue to the user experience layer

User Experience

User Experience is a core consideration when designing, selecting, and delivering tools and services to the Harvard community.

In order to improve user productivity, reduce frustration, and increase effectiveness for all users, user experience methods and techniques are applied across the full systems development lifecycle, with a focus on: accessibility, ussbility, and mobility.

Principles
Rationale
Prioritize user impact in development and selection efforts.
Understand your users and their needs and make that a priority for design decisions.
Optimize for the entire user journey and experience.
Ensure that all touchpoints of the user journey are optimized for a great user experience across all channels and devices for all users.
Incorporate user feedback throughout the design, testing, and implementation process.
Continually test designs with users to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction.
Ensure the accessibility and mobility of products.
Make interactive systems equally operable for all users on all common devices, regardless of circumstances or limitations.

Continue to the applications layer

Applications

Applications reflect the most direct alignment of Information Technology solutions to business requirements. As such they must deliver the appropriate 'fit, form, and function' to the business owners. In addition, supportability and total cost of ownership are considerations that the IT community requires.

Evolution and reinvestment in applications are driven in part by changing business requirements, but also in part by transitions in technologies such as web-based applications, and cloud computing. EA provides 'road maps' to help chart the implementation of new and evolving applications to meet business needs.

Principles
Rationale
Minimize customization and in-house development.
Favor SaaS, then COTS solutions before considering investments in customization and development efforts. Consider total cost of ownership, time to market, vendor lock in and other criteria when making build/buy decisions.
Select and build applications that meet multiple needs and can support multiple organizations.
Applications should deliver functionality that can be used in multiple organizations. Avoid the duplication of effort and unnecessary expense of redundant implementations.
Select and build applications that include re-usable components
Use services from other applications when available. Expose unique functional capabilities to other applications as services.
Build and evaluate applications considering institutional principles and policies.
Organizations should have confidence that application teams have proven the effectiveness and security of their solutions. Users should have confidence that their interactions with applications will not harm them.
Select and build applications that comply with contemporary development, operations, and support practices.
Applications designed for the cloud (cloud native, 12 factor) can more easily take advantage of cloud scaling, automation, DR and monitoring capabilities.

Continue to the middleware layer

Middleware

Middleware has historically reflected Information Technology solutions that could be shared by multiple users, such as shared Oracle databases.

Contemporary trends in computing have enlarged this concept to include difficult-to-implement but common capabilities such as authentication, authorization, access control, API management, security management, monitoring, logging, and other capabilities. Thus the role of Middleware is to provide complex services to application teams in an approachable and robust way.

Principles
Rationale
Use middleware solutions for common, shared application functions.
Middleware provides services to other software as opposed to implementing business functions directly. Using middleware services as supporting components to the functional capabilities of applications can simplify development and support portability.
Use enterprise shared services.
Shared services for access management, logging and other common needs reduce duplication of effort, help achieve economies of scale and can improve quality. Give preference to services that provide full management and operation capabilities to application teams in order to minimize redundant investment in staff, skills, and computing resources.
Use shared services that work in multi-tenant environments.
Give preference to shared services that are able to support multiple applications using the smallest number of instance implementations.

Continue to the interoperation layer

Interoperation

Combining data from disparate sources into meaningful and valuable information is increasingly important to effective support of business needs. Enterprise Architecture works to support these integration requirements by aligning people, processes and tools across the University.

Principles
Rationale
Build and use reusable APIs to exchange data between systems.
APIs are the preferred method of moving information between systems.
Prefer open standards.
Open standards ease interoperation, facilitate broader adoption and reduce vendor lock-in.
Document interoperation interfaces.
Interfaces must be well documented and freely available. Interfaces must be documented using standard languages.
Select tools and products that have multiple implementations.
There should be multiple vendor or open source implementations for vendor-supplied interfaces.
Use an API versioning system to manage API changes and indicate compatibility levels.
Minimize version changes to provide stability. A change in syntax or semantics requires a new version. Manage and document your API lifecycle.

Continue to the data layer

Data

Data and information are key University assets that must be managed to maximize value and minimize risk.

Enterprise Architecture works to support this goal through the development of data models and documentation, data access policies, and data governance processes.

Principles
Rationale
Source systems should export data in a single format.
Source systems should provide data in only one format.
Transform data the least number of times and into the smallest number of different formats.
Process once, reuse many times. Data transformation for common data assets is performed the smallest number of times, ideally once.
Obtain data only when needed in order to maximize data currency.
Obtain data from other systems only when needed, except when coordinated snapshots are needed for consistency such as fiscal year closing. Make it timely.
Document data element descriptions and meaning.
All data assets must be documented with descriptions and easily available to members of the Harvard Community.

Continue to the infrastructure layer

Infrastructure

Infrastructure encompasses hardware and virtualized platforms that operate applications, services, and their components.

The hardware elements of Harvard’s IT capability must be aligned with the organization's business goals. Enterprise Architecture works to define, design and align the sum of Harvard’s physical and virtual infrastructure to ensure efficient and effective support of business applications.

Principles
Rationale
Use infrastructure and services that enable virtualization, abstraction, elasticity, and automation.
Make every effort to leverage cloud infrastructure first. Continuously improve Cloud solutions and empower customers to take advantage of the full benefits of the Cloud. Facilitate evolution with the technology to achieve greater value in both time and cost. Provide the highest quality level of service to encourage universal Cloud adoption and buy-in. Provide the means for migrating to a Cloud infrastructure.
Reuse common capabilities and automate repetitive processes.
Focus on using architecture patterns to achieve efficient results, modularity and enterprise-wide standardization. Empower the customer to take advantage of Cloud capabilities. Favor AWS-native over vendor agnostic solutions except where ITSMspecific services are required (e.g. monitoring, logging, alerting, centralized configuration management etc.). Be open to SaaS integrations. Encourage innovation and experimentation.
Use infrastructure and services that enable developers and administrators to manage application performance, cost and operational risk.
Provide expertise and offer services that enable the customer to make well-informed decisions and actively manage their applications. Provide dashboards that simplify viewing performance and cost information and tools that streamline configuration changes.
Ensure infrastructure services offer appropriate levels of security, configurability, resiliency and recoverability.
Align customer applications with Harvard’s IT direction. Provide foundational services to customers that improve application quality, delivery and reliability. Ensure the Cloud resources provide resiliency to customer applications. Align to ITSM practices.

Continue to the network layer

Network

Principles
Rationale
Leverage open and established standards.
Be open - leverage open and established standards and discourage the use of proprietary protocols or narrow implementations.
Identify failures modes and design accordingly.
Provide seamless recovery from failure. Design and expect failure; routine failure should not impact availability.
Control access using identity rather than network address.
Use a meaningful identity - Users and applications should be permitted through their identity and system and not their current address.
Enable self-service.
Provide systems and controls to give end users flexibility and control over their resources.

Continue to the Physical Layer

The Architectural Layers

We approach the work of defining an architecture for the University by considering each layer of our physical architecture "stack", as well as cross-cutting security requirements, and articulating a set of Principles, Standards and Resources for each layer.

A list of architectural layers points to the creation of principles and standards for each layer

Continue to the security layer

Physical

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Rationale
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